Cause and effect is a common method of organizing and discussing ideas why things happen and what happens as a result of those things. This article from the American School Counselor Association gives parents, teachers and mentors a look at appropriate ways to encourage children in each stage of life, and shows the positive effects encouragement has on future career development.

When planning a career with your child, consider the following:
Work situations and skills needed for employment are constantly changing. Almost half of the working population expects to change jobs in the next three years. Retraining and upgrading skills will be a requirement for maintaining employment. Two-thirds of the jobs created today will require education beyond high school. The worker of tomorrow must be able to work as a team member, communicate, solve problems, use technologies, adapt to change and be drug-free. Career development is a lifelong process.
PRE-KINDERGARTEN THIRD GRADE

Development traits
Needs and seeks attention and praise. Has boundless energy. Considers fantasy as reality. Shows a variety of tension-releasing behaviors.
Career needs
Distinguish between work and play. Identify different types of work. Experience different types of work activities. Describe how decisions are made. Demonstrate a positive attitude. Identify personal feelings.
Parent involvement
Listen and encourage. Encourage involvement in a variety of sports/hobbies. Positively reinforce your child for completing chores. Praise efforts toward work as well as accomplishments. Show an interest and stress the importance of school. Give toys that promote role playing. Make decisions with not for your child.

FOURTH GRADE SIXTH GRADE

Development traits
Is more independent. Feels that friends and belonging to a group are important. Can assume more responsibility. Has a surprising scope of interests. Can think on his or her own but is influenced by others.
Career needs
Identify personal interests, abilities, strengths and weaknesses. Describe how work at home and/or school relates to jobs in the community. Describe how work is important and attainable to all people. Describe how personal beliefs and values affect decision making.
Parent involvement
Encourage good work habits at home. Gradually add responsibilities. Effort/experience are more important than quality. Don't assign jobs at home based on gender to avoid stereotyping. Show various workers in your community. Participate in your child's school's career education program. Listen as your child makes decisions. Keep peer pressure in mind.

SEVENTH GRADE EIGHTH GRADE

Development traits
Is undergoing dramatic physical changes. Is sensitive and has need for approval. Tries to build a unique identity apart from parents' influence. Wants more independence. Is curious but not ready for planning. Expresses feelings more openly.
Career needs
Demonstrate effective skills in working with others. Show an appreciation for the similarities and differences among people. Describe individual skills and aptitudes required to fulfill roles. Identify strategies for managing personal finances. Describe skills needed in a variety of occupations. Demonstrate skills needed to obtain and keep a job.
Parent involvement
Discuss your child's skills, interests, abilities and goals to help plan for the future. Encourage participation in service-oriented activities in the community. Help children meet a variety of workers by arranging job observations, field trips or personal interviews. Use guided money-management and allow your child to make economic choices. Allow children to work part-time outside the home.

HIGH SCHOOL

Development traits
Develops a sense of self-identity. Begins a more prominent and realistic work/career search. Develops a concern with social issues. Matures sexually with physical and emotional changes. Increases independence.
Career needs
Understand how individual personality, abilities and interests relate to career goals. Understand how education relates to college majors, further training and/or entry into the job market. Demonstrate transferable skills that can apply to a variety of occupations and changing work requirements. Be able to use a wide variety of career information resources. Show responsible decision making.
Parent involvement
Help your child make independent decisions. Encourage exploration of all kinds of post-secondary education opportunities. Involve yourself in your child's future planning. Give certain economic responsibilities. Encourage job awareness. Be flexible as the decision-making process evolves. It takes patience and numerous modifications.