May has been no gift to Ohio's farmers.

The rain has fallen hard and often, the weather has been cold, and neither of those are much good for growing corn, the state's second largest crop behind soybeans.

"It’s not been an ideal planting season for corn," said Peter Thomison, corn expert for Ohio State University Extension. "There's a whole lot of hurting going on."

Corn is planted before soybeans, and pockets of warm, dry weather in early April prompted farmers to get a head start on the season. Ohio growers were twice as far along in planting corn than the 5-year average in April.

Then the rains came and cooler weather crept in, forming a crust on some soils, which makes it hard for corn to emerge.

Those conditions have led some farmers to replant, a difficult chore given the additional investment in time and seeds.

"The farmers have struggled with it," Thomison said. "Some are planting for a third time."

Northern Ohio, from Van Wert to Chardon, has received about 2 inches more rain than usual since April 1. Central Ohio hasn't been hit as hard, while southeastern Ohio has been drier than the rest of the state, according to the Ohio crop weather report published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service.

If corn is up in the fields, the rain probably hasn't ruined it — not yet, at least.

"The corn may not look good, but it will be OK if it got out (of the ground)," Thomison said.

It has been much the same story across the Midwest.

In the past 30 days, about 40 percent of the Midwest received twice the normal amount of rainfall, with soils saturated from Arkansas to Ohio, according to MDA Weather Services. While spring showers usually benefit crops, the precipitation has come fast enough to flood some corn and rice fields and trigger quality concerns about maturing wheat.

"Bad conditions got worse with rain on Friday," said Brandon Bowser, regional manager for Harvest Land Cooperative, which has 26 agronomy locations in Indiana and Ohio. "There are lakes in some fields."

He said planting was off to a fast start in the second half of April, then the rains and lower temperatures erased early optimism. He estimates about a third of his region's corn will be replanted, and surviving seedlings are at risk of blight.

"It's the worst corn replant in our area I've seen in 28 years," Bowser said.

However, spring weather is not the ultimate driver of a good harvest. July and August, when corn and soybeans pollinate and mature, hold all the aces.

"It really isn’t so much the conditions now," Thomison said. "It’s what we experience in July and August. If we have mild conditions ... we could still have a decent crop."

Information from Bloomberg News was included in this story.